Dec. 28, 2020 to March 31, 2023; Denchu Art Museum temporarily closed for renovation works
Jun. 1, 2021 to autumn 2022; Okayama Castle temporarily closed for renovations
Sep. 13 to 30; quasi-emergency measures in 11 cities, 6 towns
Sep. 13 to 30; Okayama Korakuen Garden temporarily closed due to the coronavirus
Getting to Okayama
- By Shinkansen (Superexpress Nozomi) -
From Tokyo Station: approx. 3 hr. 15min.
From Shin-Osaka Station: approx. 45 min.
From Hiroshima Station: approx. 35 min.
"Japan Rail Pass" available for tourists making a short stay in Japan. For more information, visit "JAPAN RAIL PASS."
Hello Kitty Shinkansen decorated with images of Hello Kitty runs almost every day between Shin-Osaka and Hakata on the Sanyo Shinkansen line. It makes one round trip a day.
Free Wi-Fi service available at several places in Okayama Station, such as the Shinkansen gate and waiting rooms, and the concourse for the conventional lines on the second floor. For more information, visit "West Japan Railway Company".
- By Expressway Bus -
From Shinjuku Station in Tokyo : approx. 10 hr. 15 min.
From Kansai International Airport in Osaka : approx. 3 hr. 35 min.
From Hiroshima Station : approx. 2 hr. 35 min.
Ryobi Bus operates expressway bus routes from Okayama to Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka and some other cities in Western Japan.
For more information, visit "Ryobi Bus".
- By Air -
From Tokyo (Haneda Airport) : approx. 1 hr. 15 min.
( approx. 30 min. from Okayama Momotaro Airport to Okayama Sta. by shuttle bus )
( approx. 35 min. from Okayama Momotaro Airport to Kurashiki Sta. by shuttle bus )
Free Wi-Fi service available at Okayama Momotaro Airport. For more information, visit "Okayama Momotaro Airport".
In days gone by, "the Kibi no Nakayama mountains" located in the western part of Okayama City and spreading out like a carp swimming in water was so well-known that they were written in a poem in Kokin Wakashu, or "A Collection of Ancient and Modern Japanese Poetry", collected by Imperial command in the early 10th century. There are a lot of tumuli including large-scale keyhole-shaped ones here and there on the mountains.
In ancient times, the area mainly consisting of all of Okayama Prefecture and the eastern part of Hiroshima Prefecture was named Kibi Province and formed a huge cultural area as a strategic point for transportation between the Kinai Region composed of parts of Nara, Osaka and Kyoto prefectures, and Kyushu Region located near the Asian Continent.
Taking advantages of its warm and mild climate in addition to few natural disasters such as typhoons and volcanic eruptions, rice farming was developed in the area. Located on the northeastern edge of Kurashiki City, Tatetsuki Grave Mound, where the inside of a wooden coffin was blanketed with thirty kilograms of vermillion and an iron sword and a lot of gems were excavated, was constructed nearly 1,800 years ago.
According to Okayama Prefectural Ancient Kibi Cultural Properties Center, it is considered that the person buried in the grave may be the paramount chief who unified a lot of tribes into Kibi Province. However, the numerous tumulus and remains in the area cannot specify the origin of Kibi Province now.
Judging from the fact that a lot of tumuli lie in Okayama Prefecture, the province had almost equal power to the Yamato line of emperors, to struggle for supremacy. And later it was divided by the central government into three, Bizen, Bitchu and Bingo: the nearest to Kyoto, the eastern part, is Bizen, and Bingo is the present eastern part of Hiroshima Prefecture as well as the present western part of Okayama Prefecture. And then Bizen was divided from north to south, Mimasaka and Bizen.
Today, Bizen, Bitchu and Bingo are used as a prefix to names of places, stations and others like Bizen-Osafune and Bitchu-Takahashi Station.
Provincial cities and towns in Japan, such as those in Okayama Prefecture, are packed with Japanese traditions handed down for generations. Moreover, refined rusticity remain everywhere in the countrysides, such as Fukiya and islands in the Seto Inland Sea National Park, along with natural beauty even now.
A Mild Climate All Year Around
Okayama Prefecture except its northern part has a mild and comfortable climate all year around with little rainfall. It is sandwiched between Chugoku Mountains on the north side and Shikoku Mountains on the island of Shikoku beyond the Seto Inland Sea. These mountains protect this region from chilling winds and typhoons.
Setouchi region along the Seto Inland Sea has relatively little rainfall all year round. Okayama Prefecture is well known as "Hare no Kuni", or "the land of fair weather", due to its mild temperature and low rainfall.
According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, the average annual temperature in Okayama City is 15.8 degrees Celsius, the same as that in Tokyo. Okayama City has received 2033.7 hours of sunlight annually, while Tokyo has got 1926.7 hours. The average annual rainfall in Okayama City is 1143.1mm, while that in Tokyo is 1,598.2mm, based on the data from 1991 to 2020.
Okayama Prefecture is blessed with favorable conditions such as a good environment for taking a walk and cycling.
Few Natural Disasters
Okayama Prefecture has few natural disasters such as typhoons, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis. Because Shikoku Mountains on the island of Shikoku beyond the Seto Inland Sea block typhoons coming mainly from July to October, Okayama Prefecture receives little damage from typhoons.
Considering that there is no active volcano in and close to Okayama Prefecture, there would be no possibility of being hit by volcanic disasters. According to Okayama Local Meteorological Office, no earthquake with seismic intensity 6 or over on ten-step scale which indicates the degree of shaking between 0 and 7 at an observation point on the ground surface, on which it is difficult to remain standing, has been observed in Okayama Prefecture after the first monthly report on earthquakes in Japan was issued in 1926.
There is very low possibility that a huge tsunami occurs because Okayama Prefecture lies on a calm inland sea. According to Okayama Prefecture, the highest tsunami waves triggered by an earthquake and reaching the coastline of Okayama Prefecture on record are 21 cm high, caused by the magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake in 1960. Off the record, the coast was hit by tsunami less than one meter high caused by the earthquake of magnitude 8.0, which gave extensive damage to areas along the Pacific Ocean in western Japan, in 1946.>
In addition to the above natural disasters, no nuclear power plant is located in Okayama Prefecture. It can be considered that Okayama Prefecture is one of the safest prefectures in Japan.
What's Going on This Week ( September 20 to 26, 2021 ) ?
Okayama Prefecture is under quasi-emergency measures which remain in force in 11 cities and 6 towns, including Okayama City and Yakage Town, from September 13 to 30.
“Silver Week” started on September 18. In combination with well placed weekends in September, it is a cluster of Japanese national holidays which contains "Respect for the Aged Day," September 20, and "the Autumnal Equinox Day," September 23. It is named after "Golden Week" in spring, from around the end of April through early May.
"Okayama International Music Festival 2021" and "Okayama City Arts Festival" start in Okayama City on September 25. The music festival is held with the aims of bringing the city back to life, leading to energy for the future, and preventing Okayama's culture until October 31 whereas the arts festival run until the end of this year as a place to present music, theater, dance and other artworks for cultural groups and citizens’ groups.
Coronavirus-related Information in Okayama Prefecture
Okayama Prefecture has 14,969 confirmed cases for the coronavirus in total, consisting of 7,588 cases in Okayama City, 4,316 cases in Kurashiki City, the rest in the others, and 135 death toll as of September 19. Less than 240 new cases were confirmed during the last week ranging from September 13 to 19. The prefecture sees a downward trend in the number of confirmed new cases for the virus. There have been 14,091 confirmed recoveries in the prefecture.
The government reported that about 58% of residents of the prefecture had been given their first dose, and around 49% of the citizens had been fully vaccinated as of September 18. More than 90% of people aged 65 and older had received their first dose, and over 89% of the elderly citizens had completed their full vaccination. They are more than the national average rates.
"Ethical Capitalism: Shibusawa Eiichi and Business Leadership in Global Perspective" that was published in 2017 describes study results on business philosophy of Shibusawa, who was an entrepreneur called the "father of Japanese capitalism," that morality and economic activity can be linked and public interest should come first before profits. After the degradation of the western style capitalism due to the impact of the Lehman Shock in 2008, a lot of economists in western countries were looking for its replacement. Eight researchers from and outside Japan kick around Shibusawa's doctrine from economic perspectives and historical perspectives.
Shibusawa was born as the only son of a wealthy farming family in a village lying to the north of Tokyo in 1840. He had learned the Analects of Confucius from his cousin since he was seven years old. After joining the movement advocating reverence for an emperor and the expulsion of foreigners, pursued by the shogunate and wandering from place to place, he began to work for Yoshinobu Tokugawa, who later became the last shogun, when he was 24 years old. He followed a brother of Yoshinobu as a member of the shogunate's mission to Europe in 1867, and broadened his horizons by getting knowledge of up-to-date technologies and social systems such as capitalism mainly in France. The party returned to Japan because of the collapse of the shogunate after only a year and a half of study abroad life. Following his career in the Ministry of Finance in disorder, Shibusawa started working as a private business person. He became involved in the establishments of about 500 private companies, mainly in finance, transportation and communications, and some 600 social welfare organizations. He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for his significant contribution to international peace at a nongovernmental level in 1926 and 1927.
Shibusawa compiled the contents of his lectures into a book, "the Analects of Confucius and the Abacus" to disseminate commercial morality in order to foster trust and the work was issued in 1916. At that time, it was said that the acts of Japanese merchants were based on fraud. It was totally different from France's commercial policies he made a model. He said traders had little knowledge compared with samurais. After the Meiji Restoration, dealers had been tainted by greed due to their low social status, and drastic modernization and internationalization in Japan. As a result, many worshipers of Mammon appeared. An experience in London where he traveled with his wife triggered the publication. He was shocked when a member of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in London claimed that Japanese traders were unfaithful to their word. The British man remarked that Japanese traders, for example, did not receive goods readily in bad times while they took merchandise soon in good times. In addition, Japanese merchants asked sellers to issue a receipt twice to evade tax. Unfortunately, it reminds us of the current situation in Japan. Last June, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation announced that fraudulent acts were found by internal investigations, just in the middle of a Covid-19 storm and a dispute over whether the Tokyo 2020 Olympics should be held. With fictional data produced by automatic creation programs, the company tampered with inspection data of part of air conditioners and air compressor units for railroad vehicles, and submitted certificates of inspection with rigged figures to some clients. It was clarified that the misbehavior has been performed for more than 35 years. The inspection scandal affects equipment on about 2,600 cars out of 6,400 cars in New York City's subway fleet as well. Additionally, the 100-year-old firm stated on August 17 that injustice in pre-shipment inspections, spanning 25 years, was uncovered at its factory manufacturing electric switchgears in Kagawa Prefecture. The electric company announced on July 28 that Senior Vice President Kei Uruma took over as its president and CEO. The new president said he would seriously work on changing the company's culture. Even though they have been criticized by others from home and abroad, it looks like they totally lack a sense of crisis and do not put themselves in cheated another's shoes, as contrasted with Japan Airlines, which filed a petition for protection with the court under the Corporate Rehabilitation Law in 2011 and engaged an outside personnel, Kazuo Inamori, who is a philanthropist, entrepreneur and the founder of Kyocera and KDDI, as head of the declining flag carrier of Japan. Skytrax ranked Japan Airlines as the 11th best in the World's Best 100 Airlines for 2019. There are many other corporate scandals. It is said that Townsend Harris, a US diplomat in the 19th century, labeled the Japanese as the biggest liars on earth.
Before the new 10,000 yen banknote featuring Shibusawa, which is expected to appear in 2024, was introduced in 2019, few Japanese knew him even though he is the person who led Japan's industrialization. Most Japanese people have never learned about him at school. It can be said that indicates the fact that Japan has given little consideration to commercial morality. Luckily, his name is found in recent history textbooks.
Shibusawa was skilled in the art of persuasion. Tokio Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. (the predecessor of Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance Co., Ltd., and the first insurance company in Japan) was founded through his untiring efforts in 1879. At first, his plan was objected to by people around him, including Yukichi Fukuzawa, an enlightenment thinker, and Yataro Iwasaki, a founder of Mitsubishi Commercial Company having schemed to monopolize shipping businesses and later giving up to establish his own marine insurance company by Shibusawa's persuasion. Shibusawa had difficulty in finding capital investors. He focused on cooperative funds collected from nobles for the establishment of a railway company and ending up having nowhere to go. He persuaded the former feudal lords who were not knowledgeable about the financial protection against losses to fund for the insurance company. His art of persuasion brought him success in business while many leaders at that time took what they wanted by force.
At the Lehman Shock, the U.S. Congress faced a "too big to fall" issue because some financial giants were mutually interdependent, and Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 was passed to minimize the economic damage, resulting in paying government bailout money to some finance companies, including AIG. Although Shibusawa contributed to the founding of about 500 private companies, he did not form a zaibatsu, a Japanese-style financial and industrial conglomerate. He received pay only from the first bank in Japan he founded, except the yields on his shares, which were invested as capital for new businesses. He also had the business philosophy that fair competition was necessary for the sane growth of industries and cooperations, and total monopoly caused harm to society.
In sharp contrast to Shibusawa, Iwasaki was extending his business with the relentless pursuit of profit. One day, Iwasaki approached Shibusawa with an idea of creating a monopoly by themselves in the Japanese market at a teahouse with 15 geisha girls. The father of Japanese capitalism refused the proposal. Two years later, he established a shipping company to prevent Mitsubishi's monopoly in marine transportation business, together with his supporters who stood to be financially hurt by Mitsubishi. Their fierce competition ended up the organizations' being merged together after Iwasaki died of stomach cancer at the age of 50. Shibusawa dedicated himself to philanthropy after his retirement and died at the age of 91. Iwasaki's ambition has been achieved to a certain extent. The Mitsubishi Group, formerly Mitsubishi Commercial Company, is a giant that is engaged in a diverse range of business sectors, from finance, marine transportation and rocket business to trading in daily necessities, composed of over 4,500 group companies, including some large sponsors in mass media, with 7.7% sales of all the companies listed on the Stock Exchange as of March 2020. The total sales exceed those of Walmart. However, that has impeded the inclusive growth of Japanese industries. Japanese venture companies face extreme difficulty in making their business succeed. After the Second World War and then the dissolution of zaibatsus, including the Mitsubishi Zaibatsu, Japan made a miracle post war restoration from ashes happen. The giant is a burden on the Japanese industrial world like GAFA on the world of industry. Peter F. Drucker said that Shibusawa and Iwasaki set up two thirds of Japanese companies relevant to the modern manufacturing and transportation industries. He praised Shibusawa's significant contribution to the nurture of human resources, unlike Iwasaki who acted in an opposite way to his people. Harvard Business School has used case studies that identify Iwasaki as a founder with a great entrepreneurial talent. Without Shibusawa, Japan would have become a completely different country, like Korea where a handful of chaebols dominate its market. Systematized monopoly is harming society. Why had Shibusawa been almost unknown among Japanese people for a long time since his death?
The portrait of 10,000 yen notes is scheduled to change from Yukichi Fukuzawa, who highly evaluated Yataro Iwasaki, who has been behind monopoly capitalism in Japan, to Eiichi Shibusawa who developed the concepts of ethical capitalism. Is it a sign that may cause changes in Japan's capitalism, or just a coincidence? Capitalism is producing dysfunction. Ethical capitalism could be the best agent of change to be welcomed by people in the world, including Japan.
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Shibusawa Eiichi Memorial Foundation. (2021, Jun 25). Name Change Charts of Companies and Organizations Related to Eiichi Shibusawa. https://eiichi.shibusawa.or.jp/namechangecharts/
FNN Prime Online. (2021, Jul 2). 20% of Employees knew Inappropriate Inspections?...Cheating Scandal of Testing at Mitsubishi Electric's Factory in Nagasaki, President announced his resignation. https://www.fnn.jp/articles/-/204673
JIJI COM. (2021, Jul 1). Camouflage Programs, Everyday Business Practices at Mitsubishi Electric since 1980s.
Hoyama, Taisei. (2021, Jul 9). NYC demands more info on Mitsubishi A/C in 2,600 subway cars: Japanese company has admitted to falsifying inspection data. Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Electronics/NYC-demands-more-info-on-Mitsubishi-A-C-in-2-600-subway-cars
Skytrax. (2019). World's Top 100 Airlines 2019. https://www.worldairlineawards.com/worlds-top-100-airlines-2019/
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Toyo Keizai Online. (2020, Mar 16). Unknown Identity of The Mitsubishi Group: An Organization with 870,000 People; Distinguished Zaibatsu with 150 Years of History Still Closely Tied. Toyo Keizai Inc. https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/336878
Moriya, Atsushi. (2020, Dec). Introduction of "the Analects of Confucius and the Abacus" of Eiichi Shibusawa. NHK Publishing
Kikkawa, Takeo. (2014, Feb). Eiichi Shibusawa in Global Capitalism: Gappon Capitalism and Morality. Toyo Keizai Shinposha
Shimada, Masakazu. (2014, Feb 13). Chapter 1 Gappon Capitalism of Shibusawa Eiichi: Formation of Unique Market-Oriented Model. Kikkawa, Takeo, and Fridenson, Patrick(Eds.). GAPPON Capitalism: The Economic and Moral Ideology of Shibusawa Eiichi in Global Perspective. Toyo Keizai Shinposha
Hunter, Janet. (2014, Feb 13). Chapter 5 "Obtaining wealth through fair means": Putting Shibusawa Eiichi's Views on Business Morality in Context. Kikkawa, Takeo, and Fridenson, Patrick(Eds.). GAPPON Capitalism: The Economic and Moral Ideology of Shibusawa Eiichi in Global Perspective. Toyo Keizai Shinposha
July 25, 2021
Updated on August 20, 2021
A former U.S. president, Barack Obama, described in his memo to the heads of federal agencies that “a democracy requires accountability, and accountability requires transparency” in January 2009. Obama revoked the Bush administration's executive order which severely restricted public access to presidential records from Ronald Reagan forward and provided the ability to cease and retard the release of the records for former presidents and vice presidents as one of his first official acts. He signed the Freedom of Information Improvement Act of 2016 to create an unprecedented level of openness in the government. It encourages accountability through transparency.
In marked contrast to Obama's actions, the Japanese ex-prime minister, Shinzo Abe, has been suspected of concealments and falsifications of official documents and data. It is said that one of his unlawful actions caused an official at the Ministry of Finance to commit suicide. The official's wife made a disclosure request for memorandums in which a detailed description of the fraudulent acts was described. At first, the government refused to reveal their existence. Finally, the defendant mentioned intention to submit the evidence at oral proceedings on June 23, 2021. But many people don't doubt that key points will be blacked out. Accountability is translated as “setsumei sekinin” in Japanese, which literally means “responsibility to explain.”Many Japanese people think accountability refers to the duty of a person concerned to explain about his or her own actions and decisions. An opinion poll conducted in early June showed that 12% of the survey participants, the 3rd most among candidates along with a strong candidate of the next generation, except nonresponse, said Sinzo Abe was appropriate to be the next president of Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party. The Corruption Perceptions Index 2020 ranks Japan as 19th most incorruptible country among 180 countries and territories.
People and mass media claim that the prime minister and the government should account for reasons why Japan has to hold the Tokyo Olympics under the coronavirus pandemic in the face of general opposition. Many medical specialists say it is unusual to hold large-scale global events when vaccination does not proceed in Japan and the world. People are unsatisfied with the actions and decisions of the prime minister because he does not fulfill his accountability enough to convince us. It is said being accountable not only means being responsible for something but also ultimately being answerable to people for the performance of agencies’ duties. An open and accountable person takes responsibility for the outcomes of his or her actions and decisions. First of all, we cannot identify who is ultimately responsible for the outcomes of the Olympics although Tokyo Prefecture is their host, because the government and the Olympic Organizing Committee are behaving like a host without responsibility. Historically, Japan has tended to avoid clarifying where responsibility lies. For example, we are not sure who was responsible for the Second World War. It is believed that full responsibility lies with the military, not Former Prime Minister Hideki Tojo. But exactly who in the military was accountable? Secondly, no clear explanation and justification of activities of the authorities concerned can be found in their presentation. The government has not cited figures based on scientific evidence for public assessment. Without appropriate information, we cannot find out why they are acting so and how they arrived at their decisions. Lastly, the government keeps ignoring things that would be unfavorable to themselves, or public assessment of their actions. The Novel Coronavirus Expert Meeting has failed to function for the best interests of the people due to the government's egoism. It seems the government aims at "all's well that ends well" by increasing doses of vaccines.
The Parliament of New Zealand established the Epidemic Response Committee, which was chaired by the Leader of the Opposition, on March 25, 2020. It is noteworthy that the ministry of Health gave information as requested, to the opposition majority parliamentary committee which checked the government's responses to the COVID-19 epidemic with a high level of transparency and accountability. The committee meeting lives streamed on Parliament’s website and social media were available when hearings were on public view, and their on-demand versions can be viewed easily. New Zealand came out on top on the Corruption Perceptions Index 2020, along with Denmark. The country is led by a female prime minister and nearly half cabinet ministers are women.
Norway ranks at the top of the list in the Sustainable Governance Indicators 2020 in terms of executive accountability with a wide and effective capacity of systems used to maintain watchful eyes, while Japan takes the 27th place in the lower-middle range. The Norwegian governments value the legislative right for the public to access information. Norway is a high-trust society. Citizens have high trust in government, and government authorities display a higher degree of mutual trust than those in many other countries. In Japan, people have believed the government is one of the most treacherous organizations. The Nordic country is one of those that achieved the highest rates for the most female ministers in the world, including the prime minister. Women account for more than 44% of all ministers.
Public accountability has been dubbed the “hallmark of modern democratic governance.” There is, admittedly, an absence of public accountability in Japan's governance. Can we recognize Japan as a modern democratic country?
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Great Lake Law. (2009, Jan). President Obama and the new EPA Administrator send a message on government openness and accountability. https://www.greatlakeslaw.org/blog/2009/01/president-obama-and-new-epa-administrator-send-a-message-on-government-openness-and-accountability.html
White, Lee. (2012, Sep 1). TRANSPARENCY, DECLASSIFICATION, AND THE OBAMA PRESIDENCY. Perspectives on History. https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/september-2012/transparency-declassification-and-the-obama-presidency
Public Citizen. (2001, Nov 5). New White House Order on Secrecy of Historical Presidential Records Is Unlawful, Bush Administration Officials Should Be Made to Explain Actions to Congress,Public Citizen Says. https://www.citizen.org/news/new-white-house-order-on-secrecy-of-historical-presidential-records-is-unlawful/
TBS News. (2021, Jun). JNN Opinion Poll: Who is appropriate to be the next president of Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party?. https://news.tbs.co.jp/newsi_sp/yoron/backnumber/20210605/q5-1.html
Transparency International. (2021, Jan 28). Corruption Perceptions Index. https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/2020/index/nzl
Shkabatur, Jennifer. Transparency With(out) Accountability: Open Government in the United States. Yale Law & Policy Review. https://ylpr.yale.edu/sites/default/files/shkabatur_transparency_without_accountability-_open_government_in_the_united_states.pdf
New Zealand Parliament. (2020, Mar 30). COVID-19: What is the Epidemic Response Committee?. https://www.parliament.nz/en/get-involved/features/covid-19-what-is-the-epidemic-response-committee/
UN Women. (2021, Mar 10). Press release: Women in politics: New data shows growth but also setbacks. https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2021/3/press-release-women-in-politics-new-data-shows-growth-but-also-setbacks
The Ministry of Health. (2020, May 11). COVID-19 Epidemic Response Committee. https://www.health.govt.nz/news-media/news-items/covid-19-epidemic-response-committee
Wiley Online Library. Balancing Governance Capacity and Legitimacy: How the Norwegian Government Handled the COVID-19 Crisis as a High Performer. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/puar.13241
June 13, 2021
Updated on June 20, 2021
It is said Albert Einstein had autism spectrum disorder(ASD). He did not wear socks and removed cuffs from his shirts by cutting them off because he was hypersensitive to texture. The winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics said he had seldom thought in words but thought through visual processing. He was not admitted to ETH Zurich at first because he failed examinations for the college except physics and mathematics. His worst subject was language. The German-born physicist did not like to listen to classes in his school days. After enrolling in ETH Zurich, he often cut classes and spent time at the library. His friend, Einstein's lifelong companion, showed Einstein his notebooks, so that the man of great importance in future years could pass examinations to put himself through college.
There are a great number of signs and symptoms showing that a person has ASD. The most commonly known feature is that people with ASD have difficulty with verbal and non-verbal communication. Their abilities to learn, think and problem-solve range from gifted to severely challenged. Albert Einstein was remarkably gifted. However, he could not have drawn out his potential without sympathetic supporters such as the friend at ETH Zurich and good environments like a happy home environment. Einstein had typical signs of ASD. Many with ASD are oversensitive to touch, taste, sound, sight, smell, balance and proprioception(body awareness). For example, people hypersensitive to sound cannot do without noise-cancelling headphones. Research shows people without intellectual disability (more than 70% out of all the people with ASD) can be classified into three types by thinking styles: visual thinkers who think in visual images, verbal/logic thinkers who are good at learning languages, remembering facts and trivia, and making lists, but devoid of visual skills, and pattern thinkers who excel at music and math. Photo-realistic visual thinkers have the benefit of photographic memory. Like other people, individuals with ASD have their own strengths and weaknesses. But, they have an extreme difference between strengths and weaknesses. They become overly absorbed with interest in specific fields.
Individuals with ASD have trouble in auditory processing. It takes autistic people longer to process what they heard verbally. Autistic people have difficulty in working out the meaning of speech sound even though there is nothing wrong with their hearing. They are characterized by lower level abilities to accurately process and interpret auditory information. In addition, sounds below 80 db(HL) are more likely to be distressing for them. Normal conversation is about 60 db compared to around 90 db of a lawn mower. These are why children with ASD have difficulty in learning in traditional ways. Lectures are still the basis for how teachers give their lessons in Japan.
ASD can be categorized into four subtypes of behavior: aloof, passive, active-but-odd and stilted. The aloof individual is unresponsive and uninterested in other people, and completely engrossed in his or her own world. The passive individual is not actively involved with others, but accepts contact if initiated by them. The active-but-odd individual is that who makes spontaneous social communication with others, but naïve, and one-sided. Opposed to the aloof and the passive individuals, this type has much longer vocabularies and uses their language. The stereotypical behaviors of the stilted individual are that he or she is dominant, sticking to rules of social interaction without really understanding them.
April 2 falls on World Autism Awareness Day recognised by the United Nations and the period between April 2 and April 8 is observed as Developmental Disorders Awareness Week established in Japan. Awareness-raising activities such as the distribution of flyers and leaflets was conducted to raise public awareness about ASD and other developmental disorders at Okayama Station on April 4 and at Kurashiki Station on April 2. Okayama Castle, Bitchu Kokubunji Temple, and some other facilities were lit up in blue on some days during the period. But it is doubtful whether it raised the awareness of developmental disorders among many people in such trite ways.
CDC's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network reported that around 1 in 54 or 1.85% of children aged 8 years have been identified with ASD in 2016, based on research in multiple areas of the U.S. The institute is tracking information on ASD for statistical purposes and issues its community report on autism which is reader-friendly regularly. Meanwhile, e-Healthnet, a website operated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, estimated about 1% of the population of Japan have ASD. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology released a report on children with developmental disorders based on investigations conducted in 2012. The data collection indicated that regular classes have 6.5% of students with developmental disorders: 4.5% for learning deficit(LD), 3.1% for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), 1.1% for ASD (there is some overlap). It seems there are no continuous official statistics of Japan on autism. Hirosaki University located in northern Japan announced in 2020 that 3.22% of children aged 5 years were found to have ASD by their research data that had been tallied up since 2015.
Years ago, some public figures, including a freelance announcer, came out publicly as a person with Asperger Syndrome. At that time, Asperger Syndrome was often taken up by the media. But shortly newspapers and TV stations lost interest in it like a boom. Recently it began to be featured in a lot of the media. NHK, a publicly-run TV of Japan, has developed a campaign for raising public awareness about developmental disorders, including ASD, and broadcast some programs about them since 2018. However, many Japanese people still do not know about ASD well and see it as merely a mental disability.
In Japan there is a lot of peer pressure. People are trying not to assert themselves in order to avoid getting attacked by other people. Many children with ASD become targets of bullying for their unique characteristics at school. Some of them stop going to school and shut themselves in their room. The ministry of education reported in 2020 that an increasing number of children in elementary and junior high school have stopped attending school for the last seven years. In 2019, more than 180,000 children or 1.9% out of the total students stayed away from school. Research says more than a half of children who refuse to attend school have ASD, including overlap with ADHD. For a long time, these children have received public criticism.
It is said people with ASD are good at problem-solving. It is obvious that they shine at challenging themselves as well. Many physicists who might have ASD, such as Einstein and Newton, challenged new issues other physicists did not recognize, like relative time. Bill Gates and Steve Jobs are also said to have autistic tendencies. Steve Jobs created compact computers when all computers were enormous. IBM, HPE and some other IT companies launched programs to recruit people with ASD. A report by a recruitment company shows that 85% of college graduates with ASD in the U.S. are unemployed, compared to the national unemployment rate of 4.5% before the COVID-19 pandemic, while just 40% of people affected by autism in Australia are employed, compared with 83% of individuals without disorders. In Europe, the unemployment rate of people with ASD in Denmark is between 80% and 90%, which is a similar trend across the rest of Europe, according to the Autism Society in Denmark. People with high-functioning autism who have unique sensibility and abilities, strong preferences, great persistence and weakness in communication, like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs, are cut out for start-up entrepreneurs. Japan has been reluctant to nurture a culture of entrepreneurship. The U.S. has led the IT industry in the world and expanded its presence in high technology fields while Japan has fallen behind in the fields compared to the U.S., China, India and some European countries. Japan has almost ignored the presence of the people with distinct characteristics and faculties. Japanese people often use the words, "never experienced before" and "take a wait-and-see attitude," at work.
It is often said there is something abnormal in people with ASD. However, what about those without ASD who often tell lies, bully the weak, stand in other people's way, and try to make war?
Autism Speaks. What is autism?: There is no one type of autism, but many. https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism
Autism Together. Autism and the senses. https://www.autismtogether.co.uk/autism-and-the-senses/
All About Science Japan. (2016, Nov 18). Autism is an essential characteristic to human evolution. https://aasj.jp/news/watch/6064
Forbes. (2017, Jul 5). Research Shows Three Distinct Thought Styles in People with Autism. https://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2017/07/05/research-shows-three-distinct-thought-styles-in-people-with-autism/
Edelson, Stephen M. Auditory Processing Problems in ASD. Autism Research Institute. https://www.autism.org/auditory-processing-asd/
ABA Solutions. (2019, Aug 27). Auditory Processing Disorder and Autism. https://abasolutionsinc.com/auditory-processing-disorder-and-autism/
University of Rochester Medical Center. Interacting with a Child Who Has Autism Spectrum Disorder. https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=160&contentid=46
Okayama Prefecture. (2021, Mar 25). April 2 falls on World Autism Awareness Day recognised by the UN. The period from April 2 to April 8 observed as Developmental Disorders Awareness Week ~ conducting awareness-raising activities, and lighting up in blue. https://www.pref.okayama.jp/site/presssystem/550993.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data & Statistics on Autism Spectrum Disorder. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html
Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network. 2020 Community Report on Autism. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/addm-community-report/index.html
Psykiatrien i Region Midtjylland. (2015). Information about Autism in Children and Young People: Diagnosis, what can be done, and quality of life. https://www.psykiatrien.rm.dk/siteassets/patient/nar-du-er-patient/nar-du-er-barn-eller-ung/80601-autisme-hos-boern-og-unge---uk---1.03_web.pdf
e-Healthnet. About ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder, Asperger). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. https://www.e-healthnet.mhlw.go.jp/information/heart/k-03-005.html
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - Japan. 5 About Developmental Disorders. https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/tokubetu/hattatu.htm
Umenaga, Yuji. (2017, Aug). Challenges for Individuals with Developmental Disorders regarding Work, and Their Specific Measures - Mainly Those with ASD (No. 685). The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training. https://www.jil.go.jp/institute/zassi/backnumber/2017/08/pdf/057-068.pdf
Graduate School of Medicine of Hirosaki University. (2020, May 28). "Press release" Research shows prevalence of children with ASD aged 5 years estimated over 3%. Hirosaki University.https://www.hirosaki-u.ac.jp/49291.html
Heart Net. Developmental Disorders. NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). https://www.nhk.or.jp/heart-net/topics/4/
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - Japan. (2020). Summary of Research Results about Problem Behaviors of Students and Issues on Guidelines in Educating Students, Including Truancy, in 2019. https://www.mext.go.jp/kaigisiryo/content/20201204-mxt_syoto02-000011235_2-1.pdf
Sanin Rosai Hospital. (2017, May 19). Background of Truancy and Children's Depression. http://www.saninh.johas.go.jp/sas/kowa/201705.pdf
Business Insider Japan. (2019, Nov 21). The U.S. IT companies including Microsoft t.ake great interest in human resources with developmental disorders such as autism. Can Japan dig up buried human resources?. https://www.businessinsider.jp/post-202655
Law Society Gazette Ireland. (2020, Nov. 5). Firms urged to look at neurodiversity. https://www.lawsociety.ie/gazette/top-stories/firms-urged-to-look-at-neurodiversity/
Pesce, Lyn Pesce. (2019, Apr 2). Most college grads with autism can't find jobs. This group is fixing that. MarketWatch.https://www.marketwatch.com/story/most-college-grads-with-autism-cant-find-jobs-this-group-is-fixing-that-2017-04-10-5881421
EPIC. (2019, Apr 2). 1 in 70 Australians has autism, and only 40% are employed. https://epicassist.org/1-in-70-australians/
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April 11, 2021
Updated on May 30, 2021
Tokyo 2020 Olympics chief Mori's derogatory comments about women, "board of directors meetings with many women takes a lot of time," caused chaos both at home and abroad. Media in Japan covered the issue extensively every day. But it seems their concern is whether other countries, expecially advanced western countries, regard Japan as a democratic nation, rather than sex discrimination itself. There was a clash of opinions on who would be his successor: choosing by abilities, regardless of the gender, or replacing him for a woman. In conclusion, Seiko Hashimoto, a former female Olympian at seven Olympic Games and Japan's Olympic minister, has been chosen as the new president of the Olympic Organizing Committee effectively with closed doors, not in the selection panel.
In Japan, it is not common to discuss gender discrimination in our daily lives. It comes up when someone famous makes sexist remarks in public such as this case or Japan has been ranked much lower by a global gender equality ranking, like Global Gender Gap Report. Japan has been placed 121st out of the 153 countries in the Global Gender Gap Index 2020 rankings.
Japanese men tend to adore ditzy but good-looking young girls. This type of girls is very popular in plenty of variety show programs in Japan's television industry, especially in their debut, while Japanese show business has a tendency to steer clear of girls who are smart and have their head screwed on the right way. It is reflecting the trend in the everyday world. Many Japanese men prefer treating women as if they were fragile and airheaded to satisfy their sense of self-esteem. As a result, a lot of women are apt to consider mental strength and wiseness unimportant.
Some men say Japanese women are passive in improving their career. But Japanese girls have not received necessary and proper education on building their career and the leadership of women at school. Researchers revealed that males were main characters in 122 out of 170 stories included in Japanese language textbooks used in the elementary schools in 2008. It accounted for 71.8% out of all the stories. In the rest of the stories, a female main character or a leading character whose gender was unknown was featured. Stories on only three women's lives appeared in the textbooks while those on seven men's lives were included. As for social studies, 45 people were in the textbooks, but only three females, such as Murasaki Shikibu, were included. There were no females in modern times and later.
In Japan the despotic leadership style is still the most common among public and private organizations. Despotic leaders are forceful, direct, and tough, based on personal dominance and authoritarian behavior. In contrast, many in advanced western countries have adopted the democratic leadership style. The shared leadership allows equal participation of team members in the decision-making and the problem-solving processes. Women have a tendency to place more importance on relationships with other people. Which comes first, spreading the democratic leadership style in Japan or drastically increasing the ratio of female leaders? Or neither of them?
World Economic Forum. (2019, Dec 16). Global Gender Gap Report 2020. https://jp.weforum.org/reports/gender-gap-2020-report-100-years-pay-equality
Nagata, Mayo. Hidden Curriculum Considerations Seen in Japanese Language Textbooks Used in Elementary Schools - From the Points of Gender and Queer. Hiroshima University Institutional Repository. https://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/ja/00033003
St Thomas University. (2014, Nov 25). What is Democratic/Participative Leadership? How Collaboration Can Boost Morale. https://online.stu.edu/articles/education/democratic-participative-leadership.aspx
February 21, 2021
Updated on May 30, 2021
Lounge about Japanese Gardens & Paths to Celebrate Cherry Blossoms & Other Flowers in Spring!
Enjoy Traditional Dancing Festivals & Beautiful Fireworks, Wearing Summer Kimono in Summer!
Feel Traditional Culture through Holly Shinto Festivals with a Long History in Autumn!
Enjoy Traditional New Year's Events and Fresh Sake Made from Okayama's Sake Rice, Omachi, in Winter!
A 90-minute regular tour of the area with an English speaking guide is offered, departing from the entrance at 9:30. No reservation is required.
A charged tour, whose fee for a private visitor is 100 yen, is also available. A reservation is required and can be made by fax or email. A fax form is available at "Kurashiki Welcome Tour Guides". For more information, visit the site.